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article by saying that the carbon oxide exerts no Buy Bupropion Online influence upon germi- nation, and the great physiologist's error was probably due to the ad- mixture of carbonic-acid gas with the carbon oxide he used. The unfavorable influence of the former gas on germination was demon, strated at that time by Paul Bert, Deherain, and Landrin. Domestication and Function. — Dr. C. M. O'Leary ("Jour, of Compar. Med. and Surg.," No. 3, 1888) advances that the domestication of ani- mals may be viewed as a remote Order Bupropion Online and distinct step in the progress of natural selection. Buy Bupropion A comparison of the quagga of South Africa with the plodding donkey of civilized countries, the author alleges, reveals a close anatomical resemblance between them ; and yet the former is fierce, fleet, and untamable, while the latter is patient, meek, and docile. It is plain, it is further said, that the difference of habit and disposition must be attributed to the effects of domestication alone ; and though animals which man has made obedient to his will and surrounded by different environments do not, apparently, differ anatomically from their primi- tive types, Bupropion Online yet there is to be found an organic modification of molecular nature of the nerve-cells, for, the author argues, habits and disposi- tions must be referred to the nervous system ; and the different nervous centers which control the functions with which they are connected im- ply either a cessation of functional activity in the nerve-cells when laps- ing instincts are the results, or a changed functional activity where the instincts have undergone a profound alteration. This implies the ces- sation of previous currents that existed between the optic thalamus and the psycho-motor zones of the cerebral cortex, or the establishment of new currents between these same points ; these changes the author calls sympathetic, for they are the result of a law in accordance with which April G, 1889. REPORTS ON THE PROGRESS OF MEDICINE. 389 all organisms adapt Cheap Bupropion themselves to an atmosphere of new conditions. In time the molecular changes of the nerve-cells are supplemented by structural changes appreciable by the microscope, and the latter changes are followed by permanently altered functions. The author concludes, finally, that the law of evolution works out its results in the animal kingdom after the following formula: 1. Changed habit and disposition. 2. Change of function. 3. Structural change in nerve-cells. 4. Permanent change in bodily organs. 5. Transition of type. The Influence of Excitations of the Brain on the Principal Organic Functions. — M. Fran^ois-Franck (" Gaz. hobdom. de med. et de cliirur.," Nos. 32, 33, 1888) states that according to Damlewsky and Ch. Richet excitation of the brain produces a lowering of the respiration or stops it altogether ; according to Lepine and Bochefontaine, it is an irregularity and an acceleration of the respiratory movements that is observed. Some authors Buy Cheap Bupropion deny the localization of cortical respiratory centers ; others — Christian!, Newell Martin, Generic Bupropion and Booker — maintain the existence of inspi- ratory and expiratory centers. The author studied experimentally not only the modification of the respiratory rhythm following simple cortical Buy Bupron Sr excitations, but the different details which accompany the respiratory phenomena, and also the respiratory changes following upon artificially provoked epileptoid attacks. The results may be formulated as fol- lows: (A) 1. The excitation of the motor zones provokes a simple, not epileptoid, modification of the respiratory function. 2. Other parts of the cerebral cortex, on being stimulated, do not act like this, unless there is a diffusion of the excitation toward the motor zones. 3. The respiratory effects consist in a change of their Purchase Bupropion frequency ; there is no relation between the regions of the motor zones excited and the accel- eration or diminution of the respiratory movements ; the diminution of the movements seems to be in relation with the degree of intensity of the excitation. 4. The respiratory effects consist also in a change of the amplitude of the movements ; the former may vary with the fre- quency of the respiratory movements. 5. The thoracic walls assume the inspiratory position, dilate ; the respiratory amplitude is then at its maximum, and the average pleural aspiration is exaggerated. It hap- pens also that the expiratory attitude is assumed by the thoracic walls ; then the amplitude of movements decreases, and the average pleural aspiration diminishes. 6. The elastic bronchi contract energetically, and the lungs resist to insufiiation more than they do in curarized ani- mals. 7. The glottis enlarges when there is a tendency to inspiration, and contracts in the opposite conditions. It was impossible to induce spasm of the glottis artificially during the inspiratory period. 8. It fol- lows that there is no cortical center in connection with the glottis, which was considered to exist by Krause, Lannois, and Delavan. 9. The cortical motor zones have no special centers for the thoraco-ab- dominal respiration. (B) 1. In partial artificially provoked epilep- toid attacks the respiration is never suspended, even during the tonic phase of the localized attack, but becomes more frequent and is of aug- mented amplitude ; the thorax assumes an expiratory position. 2. The respiratory embarrassment during the tonic phase of a generalized fit is expressed by the participation of the thoraco-abdominal walls in the general contractions, by the immobility and rigidity of the walls, as well as by the closure of the glottis ; with the addition of general muscular contractions, asphyxia is necessarily induced, which causes retardation of the heart and vasculir spasms. It happens that the respiratory ap- paratus shows some spasmodic contractions at the time of absolute tetanus of the rest of the parts of the body. 3. During a clonic attack the irregular respiration is moderately maintained, which sufiices for the non-occurrence of asphyxia; the respiration is suspended, however, when the thoraco-abdominal muscles make exception to the general con- vulsive shocks, and enter upon a state of tetanus. 4. During a general tonico-clonic attack the larynx presents the following conditions : a. The lips of the glottis separate and approach alternately with the same rapidity that the movements of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles present. Never is the glottic occlusion complete, Bupron Sr Tablets and a sufficient cur- rent of the tracheal air through the glottis persists, h. During a gen- eral tonic attack the occlusion of the glottis is complete, the tracheal current is Order Bupropion abolished, and the laryngeal muscles contract in a manner similar Purchase Bupropion Online to the contractions of the rest of the respiratory muscles, c.

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